AskDefine | Define cantata

Dictionary Definition

cantata n : a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text [syn: oratorio]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

In Latin Canto means sing.

Pronunciation

Noun

cantata
  1. A vocal composition accompanied by instruments and generally containing more than one movement, typical of 17th and 18th century Italian music.

Translations

cantata
  • Romanian: cantată

See also

Italian

Verb

cantata
  1. Feminine singular of cantato, past participle of cantare.

Romanian

Pronunciation

Noun

cantata

Extensive Definition

A cantata (Italian, 'sung') is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement.

Historical context

The term did not exist prior to the 16th century, when all "cultured" music was vocal, but with the rise of instrumental music in the 17th century the term emerged as the instrumental art became sufficiently developed to be embodied in sonatas. From the middle of the 17th until late in the 18th century a favorite form of Italian chamber music was the cantata for one or two solo voices, with accompaniment of harpsichord and perhaps a few other solo instruments. It consisted at first of a declamatory narrative or scene in recitative, held together by a primitive aria repeated at intervals. Fine examples may be found in the church music of Giacomo Carissimi; and the English vocal solos of Henry Purcell (such as Mad Tom and Mad Bess) show the utmost that can be made of this archaic form. With the rise of the da capo aria, the cantata became a group of two or three arias joined by recitative. George Frideric Handel's numerous Italian duets and trios are examples on a rather large scale. His Latin motet Silete Venti, for soprano solo, shows the use of this form in church music.

Differences between other musical forms

The Italian solo cantata tended, when on a large scale, to become indistinguishable from a scene in an opera, in the same way the church cantata, solo or choral, is indistinguishable from a small oratorio or portion of an oratorio. This is equally evident whether we examine the unparalleled church cantatas of Bach, of which nearly 200 are extant (see list of cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach), or the Chandos Anthems of Handel. In Johann Sebastian Bach's case many of the larger cantatas are actually called oratorios; and the Christmas Oratorio is a collection of six church cantatas actually intended for performance on six different days, though together forming as complete an artistic whole as any classical oratorio.
The essential point, however, in Bach's church cantatas is that they formed part of a church service. Many of Bach's greatest cantatas begin with an elaborate chorus followed by a couple of arias and recitatives, and end with a plain chorale. This has often been commented upon as an example of Bach's indifference to artistic climax in the work as a whole. But no one will maintain this who realizes the place which the church cantata occupied in the Lutheran church service. The text was carefully based upon the gospel or lessons for the day; unless the cantata was short the sermon probably took place after the first chorus or one of the arias, and the congregation joined in the final chorale. Thus the unity of the service was the unity of the music; and, in the cases where all the movements of the cantata were founded on one and the same chorale-tune, this unity has never been equalled, except by those 16th-century masses and motets which are founded upon the Gregorian tones of the festival for which they are written.
In modern times the term cantata is applied almost exclusively to choral, as distinguished from solo vocal music. It is just possible to recognize as a distinct artistic type that kind of early 19th-century cantata in which the chorus is the vehicle for music more lyric and songlike than the oratorio style, though at the same time not excluding the possibility of a brilliant climax in the shape of a light order of fugue. Ludwig van Beethoven's Glorreiche Augenblick is a brilliant pot-boiler in this style; Carl Maria von Weber's Jubel Cantata is a typical specimen, and Felix Mendelssohn's Die erste Walpurgisnacht is the classic. Mendelssohn's Symphony Cantata, the Lobgesang, is a hybrid work, partly in the oratorio style. It is preceded by three symphonic movements, a device avowedly suggested by Beethoven's ninth symphony; but the analogy is not accurate, as Beethoven's work is a symphony of which the fourth movement is a choral finale of essentially single design, whereas Mendelssohn's Symphony Cantata is a cantata with three symphonic preludes. The full lyric possibilities of a string of choral songs were realized by Johannes Brahms in his Rinaldo, that- like the Walpurgisnacht- was set to a text by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The remaining types of cantata (beginning with Beethoven's Meeres-stille, and including most of those by Brahms's and many notable small English choral works) demonstrate the many ways a poem may be set to choral music.
cantata in Arabic: كانتاتا
cantata in Bulgarian: Кантата
cantata in Catalan: Cantata
cantata in Czech: Kantáta
cantata in Danish: Kantate
cantata in German: Kantate
cantata in Estonian: Kantaat
cantata in Modern Greek (1453-): Καντάτα
cantata in Spanish: Cantata
cantata in Esperanto: Kantato
cantata in Finnish: Kantaatti
cantata in French: Cantate
cantata in Galician: Cantata
cantata in Croatian: Kantata
cantata in Italian: Cantata
cantata in Hebrew: קנטטה
cantata in Hungarian: Kantáta
cantata in Malay (macrolanguage): Kantata
cantata in Dutch: Cantate
cantata in Japanese: カンタータ
cantata in Norwegian: Kantate
cantata in Polish: Kantata
cantata in Portuguese: Cantata
cantata in Russian: Кантата
cantata in Simple English: Cantata
cantata in Swedish: Kantat
cantata in Thai: แคนตาตา
cantata in Turkish: Kantat
cantata in Ukrainian: Кантата
cantata in Chinese: 康塔塔

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

Negro spiritual, anthem, canticle, choral singing, chorale, chorus, church music, doxology, glee, gospel, gospel music, hymn, hymn-tune, hymnody, hymnology, introit, madrigal, madrigaletto, mass, motet, offertory, offertory sentence, oratorio, paean, passion, prosodion, psalm, psalmody, recessional, requiem, requiem mass, sacred music, spiritual, unison, white spiritual
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